Kerr Watch

Elapsed time since Richard Kerr failed to inform his Science readers of the confirmation of nanodiamonds at the YDB: 6 years, 3 months, and 1 day

The Song of Ullikummi: Grondine unpacks Bronze Age myth revealing Courty Impact Event

Two posts ago the Tusk provided some desperately needed oxygen to Marie-Agnes Courty’s work concluding the collapse of the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia around 2000 BC was the result of cosmic bombardment — not a volcano. Like the skeptics of the YDB group, Courty’s critics have long sought to bury the living, while shooing the rest of us along to better known subjects. Like Mike Baillie, however, the data have given Dr. Courty no choice but to continue to publish in the face of willful ignorance over four decades.

Perhaps the Tusk can help a bit by publicizing complimentary mythological work by the irrepressible Ed Grondine. Grondine went to great pains in 1999 to interpret the mysterious Akkadian “Song of Ullikummi.”

Hardly trending on iTunes, this “song” means nothing to the modern ear unless it is considered with Dr. Courty in mind. Courty’s work is likewise enhanced by the eyewitness account of those determined to preserve the memory of awful event(s) at that time.

So, put on your dancin’ shoes, and begin the jig to….The Song of Ullikummi:

 

A DESCRIPTION OF THE TEL LEILAN IMPACT EVENT IN A HITTITE MYTH?
THE SONG OF ULLIKUMMI

From E.P. Grondine, 1999

While looking through Hittite materials related to the T’e
Hantilish/Tantalus/Joshua event (forthcoming), I stumbled across “The
Song of Ullikummi”, which appears to be the mythical description of a
fairly massive impact event, and most likely of the Tel Leilan impact
event itself.

In the main the text here is from “The Song of Ullikummi: Revised text
of the Hittite version of a Hurrian Myth, Hans Gustav Guterbock,
Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, publisher The American
Schools of Oriental Research, New Haven, Connecticut, 1952”, with the
following significant changes:

1) In an attempt to relate some of the poetic qualities of the Song,
Guterbock made his translation as nearly interlinear as he possible
could. Guterbock acknowledged the awkwardness of the result, and here
word order has been modified slightly to give the translation an easier
flow.

2) It is clear that the logogram (d)U, usually translated as “Storm
God” or “Weather God”, is better translated by “Sky God”, as it is
evident that (d)U is supposed to control not only the weather but also
impactors. In a similar way nepisi, translated as “Heaven”, is clearly
no mythical place, as in Christian tradition, but instead a very real
place, a “Celestial Realm”, which is used here.

3) Guterbock was puzzled (page 55) as what kind of stone (NA)kunkunuzzi
was. It is clearly a meteorite-stone, having recieved its name
onomatopoetically from the sound of the explosion, kunkun, that
impactors make when they hit. Some changes come from alternatives
suggested by Guterbock in the commentary: (GIS) siattal is clearly best
translated as “spear point“, as Guterbock suggested (page 54) and not
as “blade“, which he used.

Comet print ~3500 years later? All ears on the provenance….

4) The enclitic -ma, which Guterbock always translated as “but”, is
sometimes replaced by “while”, when the opposition in sense is weak, or
it has been dropped entirely. Other changes substitute synonyms; and
the pronoun “the” has been replaced in the conversation formula by
“these” where appropriate.

[ASIDES ARE IN CAPITALS ENCLOSED IN BRACKETS AND INITIALED – EPG]

[DEDICATION – EPG]

[Who….]
[And] in [whose] mind there is [….]
[Into his mind] wisdom he takes.
Of Kumarbi, Father of all the Gods, I shall sing.

[BEGINNING – EPG]

Kumarbi takes wisdom into his mind,
and he raises as evil a bad day.
And against the Sky-God he plans evil,
and against the Sky-God he raises a rebel.

Kumarbi [takes] wisdom into his mind,
and sticks it on like a bead.

[THIS MAY BE A REFERENCE TO CRENELATION WORK IN JEWELRY MAKING – EPG]

When Kumarbi had taken wisdom into his mind,
he promptly rose from his chair.
He took a staff into his hand,
he put the swift winds upon his feet as shoes.

And from (his) town of Urkishh he set out;
And to the Cold Pond he came.

[THE MEANING OF ikunta luli, “COLD POND” IS UNCLEAR, BUT IT IS
SOMEPLACE IN SPACE. GUTERBOCK (page 4) IDENTIFES Urkish AS BEING
PROBABLY EAST OF THE TIGRIS, IN THE EASTERNMOST PART OF THE HURRIAN
REALM, BUT POSSIBLY IT IS A MYTHICAL LAND IN THE EAST WHERE THE EARTH,
THE SKY, AND THE CELESTIAL REALM MEET. “LEAGUE” IS USED IN TRANSLATION
IN AN APPROXIMATE AND NOT EXACT WAY AS A UNIT OF MEASUREMENT. – EPG]

When Kumarbi arrived,
There lay in Cold Pond
A great Rock.
Her length is three “leagues”,
while her width is [1] “league”
and a half “league”.

What she has below,
Upon this […]
His mind sprang forward.
And with the rock he slept,
And into her his manhood [flowed],
And he took her five times,
And he took her ten times again.

[A BREAK IN ALL THE TABLETS OCCURS. WHEN THEY CONTINUE, FOR SOME
REASON THE SEA-GOD HAS BEGUN TO SUSPECT WHAT HAS HAPPENED. SINCE THE
SEA WAS HIT BY AN EARLIER IMPACTOR, AS WILL BE SEEN LATER IN THE SONG,
THE SEA-GOD HAS SENT HIS VIZIER IMPALURI TO MAKE SURE THAT KUMARBI IS
NOT PLANNING TO HIT HIM AGAIN. THE TABLETS PICK BACK UP AT THE END OF
IMPALURI’S VISIT TO KUMARBI. – EPG]

[…Kumarb]i, the Father of the Gods,
Remains upon his throne.

(…Impaluri) saw Kumarbi,
(…Impaluri) went to the Sea-God.

And Impaluri to the Sea-God began to speak these words:
“What my lord […] me,
close to the Sea-God[…]
I […]
[On his throne] Kumarbi, Father of the Gods,
remains seated.”

When the Sea-God heard Impaluri’s words,
The Sea-God began to speak again to Impaluri:
“O Impaluri, my Vizier,
The words which I speak to you,
[to my words] hold (your) ear,
Go and speak these strong words to Kumarbi,
Go, and say to Kumarbi:

“Why did you come in anger against my house?
So that trembling seized (my) house,
And fear seized (my) servants?
For you, cedar resin has long been broken;
For you, dishes have long been cooked;
For you, by day and night, the singers hold set the lutes.
Get up, and come to my house.'”

And he got up, (xImpaluri)
And Impaluri went before him.

And Kumarbi [came out of his] house,
And Kumarbi traveled,
And he went into the Sea-God’s house.

And the Sea-God spoke:
“They shall set a stool to sit on for Kumarbi;
They shall set a table before him;
They shall bring him (things) to eat and to drink,
And they shall bring him beer to drink.”

The cooks brought dishes,
And the cup-bearers brought sweet wine to drink to him.
They drank once;
They drank twice;
They drank three times;
They drank four times;
They drank five times;
They drank six times;
They drank seven times.

And Kumarbi began to speak to his vizier Mukishanu:
“O Mukishanu, my Vizier,
The word which I speak to you,
To me hold (your) ear:
Take a staff into (your) hand,
Put shoes upon your feet.
Now go […]
And into the waters […]
And speak these words before the waters:

[A BREAK IN ALL THE TABLETS OCCURS. IT APPEARS THAT KUMARBI AND THE
SEA-GOD REACH AN AGREEMENT, AS THE SEA-GOD’S VIZIER IMPALURI LATER
WORKS AS A MESSENGER FOR KUMARBI. THE TABLETS PICK BACK UP WITH THE
BIRTH OF ULLIKUMMI, THE COMET WHICH WILL IMPACT. – EPG]

When the night […]
When the middle night watch came,
[…] came.
The Stone […] the Stone,
And […],
And […they] brought him to birth,
[…] the Rock […]
[…] Kumarbi’s son […]

They brought him to birth […the midwives],
and the Fate-Goddesses and the Mother-Goddesses took the child,
and they placed him on Kumarbi’s knee.
Kumarbi began to rejoice over this son,
and he began to fondle him,
and he began to give a dear name to the child.

[THE BIRTH OF THE COMET AND PRESAGE OF THE NEXT PART OF THE SONG FOLLOW
IMMEDIATELY. THE COMET IS COMPARED TO A SPEAR POINT AT THIS TIME, BUT
IT WILL GROW IN LENGTH AS IT GOES SUNWARD, AS WILL BE SEEN. GUTERBOCK
(page 5) IDENTIFIES KUMMIYA, THE RESIDENCE OF THE SKY-GOD, TESUB, AS
BEING LOCATED IN THE MOUNTAINS OF SOUTH-EASTERN ANATOLIA, AND THE NAME
ULLI/KUMMI IS PROBABLY DERIVED AS A COMPOUND OF THE PLACE NAME KUMMIYA.
TASHMISHU IS THE SKY-GOD’S BROTHER. – EPG]

Kumarbi in his own mind began to speak:
“What name shall I put on him,
On the son whom the Fate-Goddesses and Mother-Goddesses gave me?

Out of (her) body like a spear point he sprang –
He shall go!

Ullikummi shall be his name!
He shall go up to the Celestial Realm to kingship!
Amd he shall press down the beloved town of Kummiya!
He shall hit the Sky-God,
and he shall pound him (into) salt,
and he shall crush him like an ant with his foot,
He shall break off Tashmishu like a […] reed!
He shall scatter all the Gods down from the Celestial Realm like birds,
And he shall break them like empty vessels!”

[KUMARBI NOW REALIZES HE WILL HAVE TO HIDE HIS SON ULLIKUMMI FROM HIS
INTENDED VICTIMS, LEST THEY DISCOVER ULLIKUMMI AND STOP HIM. THE “DARK
EARTH” IS BEST UNDERSTOOD AS THE VOID OF COSMIC SPACE.- EPG]

When Kumarbi had ceased to speak (these) words,
He began to speak (again) in his own mind :
“To whom shall I give him, this son?
Who will take him,
And treat him as a gift?
And who will […]
And who will carry him to the [dark] earth (/the void of cosmic space/)?
(So that) the Sun-God of the Celestial Realm
And the Moon-God shall not see him?
He shall not see him,
The Sky-God, the brave king of Kummiya,
and he shall not kill him?
She shall not see him,
Ishtar, queen of Nineveh,
and she shall not break him off like a […] reed?”

Kumarbi began to speak to Impaluri:
“O Impaluri,
I speak to you these words,
to my words hold your ear:
Take a staff into your hand,
Put upon your feet as shoes the swift winds!
And go to the Irshirraas-Gods,
and speak before the Irsirras-Gods these strong words:

‘Come.
He calls you,
Kumarbi, Father of the Gods,
to the House of the Gods.
But the matter about which he calls you,
(that you know not).
Now come promptly!'”

When Impaluri [heard these words],
He took the staff into his hand,
He put the shoes upon his feet,
and Impaluri traveled forth.

And he came to the Irsirraas,
[And Impaluri] began to speak the words again to the Irshirraas-Gods:
“Come.
He calls you,
Kumarbi, Father of the Gods!
But the matter about which he calls you,
You know not.
Now hurry, come!”

When the Irshirraas-Gods heard the words,
They hurried, hastened,
and they [rose from their throne],
And they covered the way at once (in an instant),
and they came to Kumarbi.

[KUMARBI TELLS THE IRSHIRRAAS-GODS TO TAKE ULLIKUMMI AND PUT HIM ON THE
SHOULDER OF UPELLURI, AN ATLAS-LIKE GOD WHO CARRIES ON HIS BACK BOTH
THE CELESTIAL REALM AND THE EARTH. – EPG]

And Kumarbi began to speak to the Irshirraas-Gods:
“Take [this child],
And [treat] him as a gift,
And carry him to the dark earth (/the void of cosmic space/).
Hurry, hasten!
And put him as a spear point
upon Upelluri’s right shoulder!

[DESCRIPTION OF GROWTH OF THE COMET’S TAIL AS IT APPROACHES SUNWARD. IN
THE TRANSLATION “YARD” AND “FURLONG” STAND IN FOR UNKNOWN UNITS OF
MEASUREMENT. DESCRIPTION OF THE COMET’S COMA – EPG]

In one day he shall grow a “yard”;
In one month he shall grow a “furlong”;
The stone which is at his head,
His face shall cover.”

When the Irshirraas-Gods heard these words,
They took [the child] from Kumarbi’s knees.
The Irshirraas-Gods lifted the child,
And they pressed him unto their breast like a garment.
And they lifted him like [th]e win[ds],
and they placed him on Enlil’s knees.

And Enlil lifted his eyes,
and he saw the child.
The child was standing before the Deity:
The child’s body (was) made of stone,
of meteorite-stone.

And Enlil began to speak in his own mind:
“Who is he, this child,
Who the Fate-Goddesses and Mother-Goddesses raised again?
Who would see them [any longer],
the great Gods’ strong battles?

This is an evil plan
of no one but Kumarbi!
(Just) as Kumarbi raised the Sky-God,
so he raised this Meteorite-stone as (a) rebel against him!”

[THE COMET NOW APPEARS IN THE CELESTIAL REALM AND APPROACHES THE SUN. –
EPG]

When Enlil [ceased to speak] these words,
they put the child as a spear point
upon Upelluri’s right shoulder.

He grew up, the Meteorite-stone,
and the strong […] raised him:
In one day he grew one “yard”,
In one month he grew one “furlong”;
The stone which was at his head,
his face covered.

[EITHER ONE MONTH AND 15 DAYS, OR 15 DAYS ALONE, PASS BETWEEN THE
COMET’S FIRST APPEARANCE AND THE COLLISION OF FRAGMENTS FROM IT WITH
THE SUN. – EPG]

When the fifthteenth (15th) day came,
The Stone had grown high.
And he stood in the sea on his knees (point)
like a spear-point.
The Stone, he stood out of the water,
and his height was like […],
and the Stone reached from the sea like a garment
up to the “Place of the Belt”.
The Stone, like a […] he was lifted,
And he reached up to the temples and chamber
in the celetial realm.

[FRAGMENTS FROM THE COMET NOW IMPACT WITH THE SUN – EPG]

The Sun-God looked down from the Celestial Realm,
and he saw Ullikummi.
And Ullikummi saw the Sun-God of the Celestial Realm [as well].

And the Sun-God began to speak in his own mind:
“What swift God [is standing] in the sea?
His body is not like that of the […] Gods.”

The Sun-God of the Celestial Realm turned [his face],
and he went out to the sea.
And when the Sun-God came out [to the sea],
The Sun-God held (his) hand to his forehead.
[…]
and from his anger
his […] became altered.

[A SECOND DAY GOES BY. THE SUN-GOD LEAVES THE CELESTIAL REALM AND
VISITS THE SKY-GOD IN KUMMIYA. AFTER A FEAST, THE SUN-GOD RETURNS TO
THE CELESTIAL REALM. IT SEEMS LIKELY THAT A FRAGMENT OF THE COMET HIT
THE EARTH, THE DUST BLOCKED OUT THE SUN FOR A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME, THE
DUST SETTLED, AND THE SUN REAPPEARED. – EPG]

When the Sun-God of the Celestial Realm saw the Stone,
the Sun-God [crossed] again the horizon for a second time.
[…u]p he traveled,
and to the Sky-God he went.

And when he saw the Sun-God coming,
Tashmishu (the Sky-God’s brother) began to speak these words to the Sky-God:
“O Sky-God, my lord!
Why does he come,
The Sun-God of the Celestial Realm,
[The king] of the land?
That matter about which he comes,
(that) matter is grave,
it is not to be cast aside.

It is strong, the struggle!
It is strong, the battle!
It is the uproar of the Celestial Realm!
It is the land’s hunger and death!”

The Sky-God began to speak to Tashmishu:
“They shall set up a chair,
for his seating;
They shall lay out a table,
for his eating.”

While they were speaking thus,
The Sun-God arrived [at] their [house].
They set up a chair for his seating,
But he did not sit down;
They laid out a table for his eating,
But he did not reach out;
They gave him a cup,
But he did not put his lips to it.

And he, the Sky-God, again began to speak to the Sun-God:
“Is the chamberlain bad,
who set up the chair,
so that you did not sit down?
Is the steward bad,
who set the table,
so that you did not eat?
Is the cup bearer bad,
who gave you the cup,
so that you did not drink?”

[END OF FIRST TABLET. BEGINNING OF SECOND TABLET BADLY FRAGMENTED.]

The Sky-God again [began to speak to the Sun-God:]
“[Why] do you not eat […?]
[…] pleasant […?]”

[The Sun-God] again began to speak [to the Sky-God:]
“[…] refused […]
[…] about wh[at …]”

[ALL TABLETS BREAK OFF HERE. WHEN THEY PICK BACK UP, THE SKY-GOD HAS
LEARNED ABOUT ULLIKUMMI FROM THE SUN-GOD. – EPG]

[When] the Sky-God heard [these words],
his [appearance] became altered from his anger.

And the Sky-God again began to speak [to the Sun-God of the Celestial
Realm]:
“The bread on the table shall become pleasant.
Now eat!
The sweet wine in the cup shall become pleasant.
Now drink!
Eat, and fill yourself.
Drink, and satisfy yourself.
Then get up,
and go up to the Celestial Realm.”

When the Sun-God of the Celestial Realm heard [these words],
his mind within him rejoiced.
The bread on the table became pleasant,
[and] he ate.
The sweet wine in the cup became pleasant,
and he drank.
And the Sun-God got up,
and he went up to the Celestial Realm.

[THE SKY-GOD, HIS BROTHER TASHMISHU, AND ISHTAR GO TO MOUNT HAZZI,
IDENTIFIED BY GUTERBOCK, (page 5), AS SEMITIC ZAPHON, GRREK KASION
OROS, AT THE MOUTH OF THE ORONTES IN NORTH SYRIA. FROM
THERE THEY SEE THE METEORITE-STONE. – EPG]

After [the departure of the Sun-God of] the Celestial Realm,
The Sky-God took wisdom into his mind.
And the Sky-God and Tashmishu took each other by the hand,
and they came out of the chamber, the temple.

Ishtar came with bravery from the Celestial Realm,
And Ishtar again spoke in her own mind:
“Where do they run, the two brothers?
I shall go and see them.”

Ishtar instantly took a stand,
and she stood up before her two brothers.
And they (all) took each other by the hand,
and up to Mount Hazzi they went.

And the King of Kummiya set his face,
He set his face upon the dreadful Meteorite-stone,
And he saw the dreadful Meteorite-stone,
and from his anger his […] became changed.

And the Sky-God sat down on the ground,
and his tears flowed forth like streams.
The Sky-God, his eyes tearful, spoke these words:
“Who can endure it any longer, this one’s violence?
And who can fight any longer?
And who can endure it any longer, this one’s fearfulness?”

Ishtar again spoke to the Sky-God:
“O my brother!
Neither [….]
nor little does he know,
but bravery has been given to him ten fold!
And the son whom […] beget for themselves,
[…] you know not.
[…] in Ea’s house we were,
[… if] I were a man,
You would […]
I shall go [and …]

[THE TABLETS BREAK OFF. WHEN THEY CONTINUE, ISHTAR HAS GONE TO THE SEA
TO SEEK HELP. ISHTAR THROWS A PEBBLE IN THE WATER TO RAISE A GREAT
WAVE, WHICH MAGICAL RIGHT PROBABLY REFLECTS MEMORY OR MYTHS OF AN
EARLIER IMPACTOR WHICH PRODUCED A TSUNAMI. – EPG]

But [she took] a harp and a galgalturi,
[…] she lifted.
and a song [she began to sing],
[…] of the Earth […].
And Ishtar, she sang,
And the sea’s (?)
She put a pebble on.

Then out of the sea a great wave rose,
The great wave spoke to Ishtar:
“Who do you sing in front of?
Who do you fill your mouth with […] in front of?
The man is deaf, and does not hear.
He is blind in his eyes, and does not see.
And he has no mercy.

Go away, O Ishtar,
And find your brother:
As long as he has not yet become brave,
As long as his head’s skull has not yet become dreadful.”

When Ishtar heard thus,
She quenched the […],
She threw away the harp and the galgalturi,
She […] golden [ornaments]
And wailing […] she went,
[…]

[THE TABLETS BREAK COMPLETELY HERE. THEY CONTINUE AS THE SKY-GOD
PREPARES FOR BATTLE AND GIVES ORDERS TO TASHMISHU. IN THE TRANSLATION
“FURLONG” IS USED IN AN APPROXIMATE AND NOT EXACT WAY AS A UNIT OF
MEASURE. THIS SECTION CONTAINS A DESCRIPTION OF THE IMPACT BALST
ITSELF, AND NOTE THAT THROUGH SOME KIND OF MAGICAL THINKING, THE POWER
OF THE IMPACTOR HAS BEEN TRANSFERRED TO OUR HEROS, THE SKY-GOD AND HIS
BROTHER TASHMISHU. – EPG]

[…] they shall mix fodder,
and they shall bring perfumed oil,
and they shall annoint Serisu’s horns,
while they shall cover with gold Tella’s tail,
while they shall turn the axle.
And they shall bring strong […(harnesses)] to their inside,
while to the outside, they shall set strong stones as blinders.

They shall call forth the thunder-storms:
The rains and winds which break the rocks for ninety “furlongs”,
while they cover them for eight hundred “furlongs”.
They shall call forth the rains and the winds!

They shall bring out of the sleeping room
the lightning, which strongly flashes,
And they shall bring out the carts.

Now arrange, set them,
and bring me back word.”

When Tashmishu heard the words,
he hurried, hastened.
[He brought] Serisu from the pasture,
while he brought Tella from (Mount) Imgarra.
And he [… them] in the outer porch,
and he brought perfumed oil,
and he annointed Serisu’s horns,
while [he covered with gold] Tella’s tail,
while he […] the axles,
while he set strong stones to the outside [as blinders].

He called forth the thunder-storms:
The rains and winds which break the rock for nintey “furlongs”,
[…]

[THE TABLETS BREAK OFF AT THIS POINT. THEY CONTINUE AS THE BATTLE IS
JOINED. “YARDS”, “LEAGUES”, AND “FURLONGS” ARE USED IN THE TRANSLATION
IN AN APPROXIMATE AND NOT EXACT WAY. THIS PASSAGE CONTAINS A
DESCRIPTION OF THE GROWTH OF THE BLAST CLOUD. – EPG]

[…] one thousand “yards”,

[… The Sky-God] took a stand to fight.
Then he took the battle gear,
and he took the carts,
and he brought the clouds from the Celestial Realm.
And the Sky-God set his face on the Meteorite-stone,
and he saw him.
And his height was […]
and again his height one hundred and eighty [or three times][…] was
turned.

The Sky-God began to speak to T[ashmishu]:
“The cart […]

[ALL TABLETS BREAK OFF AT THIS POINT. THEY CONTINUE AFTER TASHMISHU
HAS CARRIED THE SKY-GOD’S INSTRUCTIONS TO ANOTHER GROUP OF GODS, WHO
NOW JOIN THE BATTLE. – EPG]

[THE COMET APPROACHES FROM THE SOUTH, FRAGMENTS ON ENTERING THE EARTH’S
ATMOSPHERE, AND THE FRAGMENTS FALL INTO THE “SEA”. – EPG]

When the Gods heard the word,
They took their place in the carts.
[…] they assigned.
Astabi sprang [upon his cart…],
and on the cart he […].
[…] the carts he arrayed,
[…].
And Astabi, he thundered,
and Astabi let go with thunder down towards the sea.
And they drew […water].
And Astabi […];
[…] Seventy Gods took.
But still he was not able […]

And A[stabi ….],
and the Seventy Gods [fell] down into the sea.
[…]

[THE INITIAL IMPACT – EPG]

[…] the Meteorite-stone his body […]
[…]
and he shook the Celestial Realm.
[…] he […]ed
The Celestial Realm […] like an empty garment he […]ed.
And the Meteorite-stone […] became high:
Before […] one thousand nine hundred “leagues”,
[…] “leagues”.
And the Meteorite-stone stood down on the Earth,
like a […], the Meteorite-stone, he was lifted,
and he reached the chamber and the temple.

[THE BLAST CLOUD GROWS. IT BLINDS HEBAT, THE SKY-GOD’S WIFE. – EPG]

The Meteorite-stone, [his height was] nine thousand “leagues”,
while his width was nine thousand […].
And he took his stand in Kummiya like a […],
And the Meteorite-stone rose above Hebat and the temple:
So that Hebat could not hear news of the Gods,
(and) she could not see with her eyes the Sky-God and Suwaliyatta.

[HEBAT, THE SKY-GODS WIFE, SENDS HER ATTENDANT TAKITI TO FIND OUT WHAT
HAS HAPPENED TO HER HUSBAND, BUT THE ROAD HAS BEEN COMPLETELY DESTROYED
BY THE IMPACT. – EPG]

Hebat began to speak these words to Takiti:
“I hear not the weighty word of the Sky-God;
I hear not news of Suwaliyatta and the Gods.
This Meteorite-stone Ullikummi of whom they speak,
Perhaps he has defeated him, my husband, the weighty [King…]!

Hebat began to speak again to Takiti:
“Hear my words!
Take a staff into your hand,
Put the sw[ift winds] upon your feet as shoes,
[…] Go!

When Takiti heard the words,
She hurried, hastened,
[…] out draw[n…]
[…] went:
And there was not a road!

[Takiti return]ed,
and she came to Hebat.
[Takiti again began to spe]ak [to Hebat]:
“My Lady, […] me
[…]

[ALL TABLETS BREAK OFF HERE. THE AUDIENCE, AS WELL AS HEBAT, IS KEPT
IN SUSPENSE AS TO THE COURSE OF THE BATTLE FOR SOME TIME. AS THE
TABLETS RESUME, THE SKY-GOD HAS DISPATCHED HIS BROTHER TASHMISHU TO
CARRY NEWS TO HIS WIFE HEBAT. – EPG]

When Tashmishu heard the Sky-God’s words,
He promptly rose.
He took a staff in his hand;
He put the swift winds as shoes upon his feet.

And he went up into a high tower,
and he took [his place] opposite Hebat, saying:
“The Sky-God bade me to go to a humble place,
until he will have fulfilled the years that are decreed for him.”

When Hebat saw Tashmishu,
Hebat almost fell from the roof.
Had she taken a step,
she would have fallen from the roof.
But the palace women held her,
and did not let her (go).

[THE TEXT BECOMES MORE AND MORE MAGICAL FROM THIS POINT ON. THE
SKY-GOD AND TASHMISHU GO TO EA, AN OLDER GOD, WHO IN TURN SPEAKS WITH
UPELLURI, THE ATLAS-LIKE GOD WHO CARRIES BOTH THE EARTH AND THE
CELESTIAL SPHERE ON HIS SHOULDERS. IT SEEMS TO HAVE BEEN MAGICALLY
CONCLUDED BY THE MYTH’S CREATORS THAT SINCE THE COMET WAS NO LONGER IN
SPACE, THE GODS HAD DEFEATED HIM. BUT THE TABLETS BECOME TOO
FRAGMENTARY, AND IT IS CLEAR FROM THE TALE ITSELF THAT THE ACCOUNT OF
THIS IMPACT WAS COMBINED WITH OLDER MYTHICAL MATERIAL, THE “TABLETS OF
THE FORMER WORDS”. – EPG]

When Tashmishu had ceased to speak the word,
he stepped down from the tower,
and he went to the Sky-God.
Tashmishu again began to speak to the Sky-God:
“Where shall we sit down?
Shall we sit down on (Mount) Kandurna?
[If] we sit down on (Mount) Kandurna,
another will be seated upon (Mount) Lalapaduwa.
Where shall we carry [the …]?
There will be no king above in the Celestial Realm.”

Tashmishu again began to speak to the Sky-God:
“O Sky-God, my lord!
Hear my words!
The words which I speak to you,
To my words hold your ear inclined!
Come! Let us go to Apsuwa, before Ea,
[…] we shall ask again for the tablets of the former words.

Now when we arrive before the gate of Ea’s house,
We shall bow before Ea’s door five times,
and again before Ea’s inner door five times,
While when we arrive before Ea,
then before Ea we shall bow fifteen times.
[And to] Ea it will perhaps […],
and Ea perhaps will listen,
and he will have mercy upon us,
and he will assign us (our) former rule.”

When the Sky-God heard Tashmishu’s words,
he hurried, hastened.
From his chair he promptly rose.
[The Sky-God and Tasmis]u took each other by the hand,
and they covered the way at once (instantly, immediately),
and [they arrived] at Apsuwa.

[And the Sky-God] went to Ea’s house,
and before Ea’s first door he bowed five times,
and before the inner door he bowed five times,
[while when] they arrived before Ea,
before Ea he bowed fifteen times.

[…] stood up,
[…] began to speak:
[…]

[ALL TABLETS BREAK OFF AT THIS POINT. THEY CONTINUE AS EA CONTEMPLATES
A COURSE OF ACTION. – EPG]

[…] the word [in] (his) mind not […],
Ea [took] wisdom [into his mind],
and he stood up,
and he went […] into the courtyard.
Ea […],
and all the Gods stood up [before] him,
and the Sky-God, the brave king [of Kummiya],
[stood up be]fore [him].

Ea saw the Sky-God,
[and] from (his) anger his [appearance] became changed.
[…]

[ALL TABLETS FRAGMENTARY. AS THEY RESUME, ENLIL APPEALS TO EA TO HELP
THE SKY-GOD. NOTE ALSO THAT EA SEEMS TO BE RESPONSIBLE FOR CLIMATE
CHANGE DURING THE YEAR: THUS ENLIL’S PLEA IS SEEKING TO STAVE OFF
CLIMATIC COLLAPSE. – EPG]

By the hand they [took each other],
[…]
While […]
[…] came out of the assembly.
[Enlil …]
and he began to wail:
[…]
“May you live, O Ea!
[…] who comes back and forth,
[…] of the Gods’ propitiation […].
Why did you transgress it […]?”

Ea began to speak to Enlil:
[“Do you not know, O Enlil?]
[Has no one brought] you a word?
Do you not know him,
the rebel who Kumarbi fashioned against the Sky-God,
[the Meteorite-stone who in the water] grew?
His he[ght …]
[And] like [a…] he is lifted.”

[FRAGMENTARY. EA RESPONDS TO ENLIL’S PLEAS, AND GOES TO UPELLURI. NOTE
THAT EA RECOUNTS THE IMPACT ITSELF TO UPELLURI, AND THAT THIS PASSAGE
DOES NOT RELATE TO ULLIKUMMI’S BIRTH. THUS MAGICALLY, SINCE THE COMET
IS NO LONGER VISIBLE IN SPACE, THE GOD WILL DEFEAT THE COMET, AND
FULFILL THEIR ROLES AS PROTECTORS. – EPG]

When Ea ceased to speak the words,
He went to Upelluri,
[…],
And Upelluri [lifted] (his) eyes,
[and he saw Ea.]
Upelluri began to speak to Ea these words:
“May you live, O Ea!”
And he stood up,
[and Ea in turn began to wish] life to Upelluri:
“May he live, Upelluri,
upon the dark earth (/in the void of cosmic space/),
(he) upon whom [the Celestial Realm and Ear]th are built!”

Ea began to speak again to Upelluri:
“Do you not know, O Upelluri?
Has no one brought you word?
Do you not know him,
the swift God whom Kumarbi fashioned against the Gods?
And that Kumarbi [has made] death plans against the Sky-God,
and fashions a rebel against him?
The Meteorite-stone who grew in the water,
do you not know him?
And like a […] he is lifted,
And (that) he covered the Celestial Realm, the holy temples, and Hebat?
Is it because you, Upelluri,
are remote from the dark earth (/cosmic space/),
that you do not know this swift God?”

Upelluri again began to speak to Ea:
“When they built the Celestial Realm and Earth upon me,
I knew nothing.
(And) when they came,
and they cut apart the Celestial Realm and Earth with a cutter,
this, too, I did not know.
Now, something makes my right shoulder hurt,
but I do not know who he is, this God.”

When Ea heard these words,
He turned Upelluri’s right shoulder,
and there on there on Upelluri’s right shoulder
stood the Meteorite-stone like a spear head!

Ea again began to speak to the Former Gods:
“Hear my words, O Former Gods,
Who know the former words!
Open them again, the old fatherly, grandfatherly, store-houses,
and bring the Former Fathers’ seal,
and with it seal them again!
And they shall bring out the former saw,
with which they cut apart the Celestial Realm and Earth,
[And…] saw under the feet of Ullikummi, the Meteorite-stone,
whom Kumarbi raised as a rebel against the Gods.”

[ALL THE TABLETS BREAK OFF AT THIS POINT.
WHEN THEY CONTINUE, TASHMISHU IS TELLING EA ABOUT THE DESTRUCTION THAT
THE IMPACT CAUSED. – EPG]

But Tashmishu […],
[before Ea] he prostrated himself,
[…] began to speak:
“[…]
[the …] in his body have been altered,
[on his] head the hair has been altered.”

Ea again began to speak to Tashmishu:
“Go ahead with my son!
Do not stand up before me!
My mind within me became angry:
With my eyes I saw the dead […] on [… the] Earth:
They are dust,
while the […] are standing up!”

Ea began to speak again to Tashmishu:
“First I struck him, Ullikummi, the meteorite-stone.
Now you go and fight him again!
The Meteorite-stone shall no longer stand as a spear-point!”

Tashmishu […] began to rejoice,
and he shouted three times,
and he went up to the Celestial Realm,
and the Gods heard it.
He shouted twice,
and the brave King of Kummiya,
the Sky-God heard it.
And they came to the assembly place,
and all the Gods began to bellow like bulls
against Ullikummi, the Meteorite-stone.

Then the Sky-God sprang upon his cart like a […],
and he went with thunder down to the sea.
And he fought him,
The Sky-God fought the Meteorite-stone.

The Meteorite-stone began to speak the words to the Sky-God:
“What shall I tell you?
O Sky-God, Keep fighting!”
And also his (whose?) […] stands within his mind.

“What shall I tell you?
O Sky-God, Keep fighting!”
Kumarbi stuck wisdom into his mind like a bead.

“I will go up to the Celestial Realm, to kingship;
and I will take Kummiya, the dear town, temple, and dwelling;
while I will scatter the Gods down from the Celestial Realm like
birds.”

[THE REMAINDER FRAGMENTARY – EPG]

When one considers that Guterbock had no idea of the underlying
physical phenomena which was being described in the myth, cometary
impact, his work in restoring the Song becomes truly remarkable. Now
that the phenomenon is positively identified, it will be up to those
far more skilled than I am to give us a new edition of the text: I am
completely ignorant of the work which must have been done on it since
1952.

What can be learned from the text at this point? If the myth has an
actual basis in a real event, and given the efforts which were put into
it by the ancients, one can not but conclude that it does; then if there
are no other destruction layers in the Tel Leilan area, one can conclude
that it is an account of the Tel Leilan impact event itself.

The Tel Leilan impactor can be identified as a comet.

If the “belt” which the comet’s tail reached to could be identified,
then the absolute size of it could be determined. While I am ignorant
of Hittite astronomical terms, I am bold (or foolish) enough to suggest
that perhaps the Hittites saw the Milky Way as Upelluri’s (Atlas’s)
belt. If so, the size of the comet was staggering, and one is left to
wonder if any of its fragments still remain in orbit.

The comet traveled either one month and 15 days or 15 days alone from
its first appearance until fragments from it collided with the Sun. It
struck the Earth coming in the direction of the Earth’s orbital travel,
instead of directly. It seems probable that the comet’s fragments
spread out, and that one fragment from the comet hit the Earth a day
before the fragment at Tel Leilan, and that this impact was
sufficiently large to raise a dust cloud which obscured the Sun.

The town of Kummiya was in the impact area.

Approximate estimates for the real distances of the Hittite words which
Guterbock translated as “yards”, “leagues”, and “furlongs”, have
undoubtedly been made since 1952, and if they were to be substituted
into the text, perhaps approximate estimates of the size of the
impactor and the blast could be made.

Given the involvements of other older Gods in this impact myth, it
seems most likely that there was an earlier impact which caused a large
tsunami which flooded the region.

Somewhat fittingly, it has been raining and thundering here for the
last two days. In closing this introduction, I echo Guterbock, “That
this interpretation is not final goes without saying.” Someone with far
greater abilities than mine (and with far better resources at hand)
needs to work through these texts.

E.P. Grondine

Copyright 1999, E.P.Grondine

  • Hi EP

    ……they fell, and they keep falling down. myths are important to not forget …..congratulations! ups, not for the next! …….we will all be fried!

    regards
    pierson

  • The Russian meteor should open a can of worms but I don’t expect mainstream want that to happen. Marie-Agnes Courty was a speaker at the 1997 SIS Cambridge Conference, the only one that turned up with any real solid evidence. Her talk was quite impressive. Other speakers were not so convincing – but there was also a poster display by Amos Nur. He seems to have taken up the baton from Claude Schaeffer, to some extent, and in a recent book reinvented the ‘earthquake storms’ that Schaeffer thought were responsible for the end of Early Bronze and end of Late Bronze wave of site destructions in western Asia and the Aegean. We also know that Merenptah, dynasty 19, recorded the passage of the star Anat, which fell (or exploded) over Libya. There is an explicit text to this effect, although alternative translations may apply, that claimed the bones cooked inside the bodies of the Libyan victims. I’m going from memory here as I don’t have any Egyptian material at hand but Merenptah sent an army to try and repel an invasion by Libyans in the aftermath of the event, and these were clearly refugees as they arrived with their families and were duly allowed to settle in the eastern delta region. Somewhat later, 20 or 30 years or so, Ramesses III also repelled a horde of refugees descending on Egypt’s imperial border in southern Syria, with an origin in N Syria and Anatolia (Turkey). They are depicted at Medinet Habu in ox drawn carts with their children and their belongings. Again, they were allowed to settle in Palestine and the text claims their arrival involved ‘a flame prepared before them …’ (but again the translations may differ but in the view of mainstream their cities had been torched by the so called ‘sea peoples’. These were a different group of people repelled by Ramesses III in the delta and clearly came in boats rather than overland, presumably from the Aegean, Cyprus etc. If a space rock was to blame and Merenptah distinctly mentions the star Anat, was it that which caused the earthquake storm? I was intrigued by early reports that failed to mention any kind of earth tremor during the recent incident in Russia. Observers did emphasize the intense heat from the energy involved and the fact it was so bright people had to avert their eyes (a very distinct feature of ancient myth). Apparently, in the BBC Horizon programme on the Russian Meteor (last week) intense heat was recorded by Siberians after the Tunguska event but scientists did not take this aspect too seriously. Hence, they were more than a little interested in the accounts of witness comments at Chelyabinsk. At http://phys.org/print281690038.html we learn the meteor was actually picked up by US seismological stations. Energy from the exploding meteor created pressure waves in the atmosphere that moved rapidly outwards. At the same time they spread ‘within’ the Earth as a seismic wave. Is this the answer to the riddle posed by Schaeffer all those years ago?

  • E.P. Grondine

    Hello Carol –

    The events you mention and those regarding Ullikumi are separated by a millenium at least.

    For a depiction of the Ullikumi impaact, see the Stelae of Naram Sin.

    Thanks for the lead ioto the Merneptah accounts.
    I was unaware of them.

  • E.P. Grondine
  • Hermann Burchard

    Carol,
    thank you for your interesting posts, esp. the article on resurrecting the Russian meteor possibly being linked to the 2012 DA14 flyby.

    Do I understand you correctly to suggest meteorite impacts energies responsible for ‘earthquake storms’ — an excellent remark that makes a lot more sense than the deep Mediterranean fault system of Amos Nur. His theory cannot explain the climate breaks, such as esp. cometary impacts are thought to cause with their large comas or continent wide thermal effects due to fragmentation. Did Claude Schaeffer ever mention impacts?

    The 365 quake and tsunami is a case in point: Mike Baillie found tree ring evidence in Northern Pines for the climate fall that started Huns and Goths migrating South and West Rome to collapse at Adrianople 379. But no impact seems to be known.

  • E.P. Grondine

    Hi Carol, Hermann

    For the absolute chronology of the Bronze Age, see:
    http://archaeologica.boardbot.com/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=2247

    A google search for the texts of Merneptah provided a lot of links to Velikovskian garbage, with its usual impossible physics, bizarre chronologies, and g*d awful pseudo-translations of texts with “Venus” inserted everywhere.

  • E.P. Grondine

    Hi Carol –

    I suspect that what you read was some Velikovskian adaptation of this bit from the internet:

    “The Medinet Habu Tablets clarify some of the events. Some of the Sea Peoples, as prisoners, declare: “Our islands are uprooted and carried away. The might of Nun [ocean] broke forth and fell in great wave on our towns and villages. The head of their cities has gone under the sea; their land is no more” (inscriptions 37, 46, 80, 102 & 109).” ..BS omitted… “Ramses III declared on the walls of Medinet Habu that “the whole delta of the Nile is flooded by the sea.” Later he [Ramses III] states, as does the archeological evidence, that there were vast fires in the Near East: “Libya became a desert; a terrible torch hurled flame from heaven to destroy their souls and lay waste their land [as] their bones burn and roast within their limbs [and] the Nile was dried up and the land fell victim to drought”
    (Tablet 105). Again, like Homer, the fires are said to be the result of a source from outside of the Earth.”

    What the first passages refer to was likely the Great Atlantic Impact Megatsunami, and it is likely that this person misdated them.

    The passage from Ramses III likely refers to the separate impact of another separate piece.

  • E.P. Grondine
  • Hermann Burchard

    Ed,
    knowing little about ancient history of Egypt, I looked up Merneptah in Wikipedia: He defeated the Sea people, which I understand to be migrants set in motion by climate downturn around Baillie year 1159 BC, of hypothesized comet impact cause.

    Your text quoted from Tablet 105 would fit in very well with this scenario, and to supply an ancient report of the surmised impact, no?

    Libya became a desert; a terrible torch hurled flame from heaven . .

  • E.P. Grondine
  • E.P. Grondine

    Hi Hermann –

    There is so much cr*p out there on the internet that I can not find the original records. Besides the Velikovskians, we have David Icke and his bunch of loons, and every Atlantis wannabe discoverer around.

    The Oriental Institute is 2 hours of driving from where I live, plus the problem of finding parking. I simply can not do that now.

    There is a whole lot of cr*p written by various loons. For that matter, there has been a lot of cr*p written about impact events, where different impacts are elided, or the evidence abused by those who know no better.

    It seems likely to me that there were several separate impacts that played a role in ending the Late Bronze Age. Without access to the primary texts, that’s all I can say.

    The soil samples and strata from coastal Spain may help to clear this up somewhat, but people believe what they want to believe.

  • I wasn’t suggesting any kind of link between the Akkad destruction series which clearly belong to end of Early Bronze III and Early Bronze IV (= end of Dynastic Sumeria and end of Akkad, roughly 2350BC and 2200BC). Mereptah comes towards the end of Late Bronze Age IIIB, which would tie in with Baillie’s 1159-41BC downturn. Late Bronze IIIC was a short lived period classified by the Cambridge Ancient History as roughly one generation, which is why I said 20 to 30 years. Schaeffer did not mention any kind of impact event – he only interpreted the site destructions as due to earthquakes, and because so many settlements were destroyed at the same time he came up with an earthquake storm. What I am interested in is what might cause an earthquake storm – and could it have been an exploding space rock. By the way, Schaeffer was in communication with Velikovsky after the publication of his book, ‘Stratigraphie Comparie’ but as far as I am aware he never considered Venus as responsible – or any other kind of space rock. In those days comets were regarded as harmless affairs capable of doing little damage. That is why Velikovsky invented his Venus alternative. I prefer the Clube and Napier model as it keeps the solar system intact.

  • Over the weekend I will get you the source of the Merenptah text. This will be from a book as I don’t rely on the internet for chronological information. Anybody can write what they want – even on Wikipedia.

  • Dear Mr. Grondine, I am at a new paper on the 2193 BC impact, I hope to
    get it ready to the end of March. This impact only blew 10 cm of spherule
    rich dust with the wind to Tell Leilan – but the impact went into the Persian Gulf just 2 miles away from Akkad, which got covered (curse of Akkad) up to higher
    than the city gates with mud…even the roads, see above Ullikummi were covered thus gone.
    There were 7 simultaneous impacts into the sea (7 torches – Gilgamesh),
    and the locations can be clearly seen as round imprints: Google maps: Ur, Nassriya, Iraq: 10 mi. East of Nassriya a vertical line of 4 impacts, starting with the smallest at the road #16, two more a vertical line of 2, 10 miles further East and then 25 miles further East the major Umm-al-Binni crater with Akkad covered 2 mi NE.
    These were the 7 torches in the sky….
    Maybe 1 mi. East of Umm-al-Binni is an additional hole structure….maybe, I am not sure….one small fragment more…
    Regards JS.

  • E.P. Grondine

    Hi JS –

    Please re-check the dates of the strata you are looking at. I thought that the impact tsunami layer at Ur was earlier, and that the text
    here was making a reference to that earlier impact tsunami.

    For the Tel Leilan impact, see the text of the Stele of Naram Sin and his explicit claims there for this impact’s location.

    Watch out for elliding separate impact events, a mistake which nearly everyone has made, including myself at first.

    Also I advise you to take a look at the texts on Enlil’s Pickaxe in the Cambridge Conference archives, and to read Bruce Masse’s works before completing your article.

  • E.P. Grondine

    Hi CS –

    That work of Velikovsky’s which you mention explains why every loon out there latched on to those records. That is also one of the reasons I missed I it entirely, a the fact that it is that Velikovsky’s “work” is confused junk.

    In short, Velikovsky had no influence on my own work; it was ab initio, from a clean slate, and did not play loose with either linguistics, nor chronologies, nor linguistics.

    One of my reasons for working with impact events in the Americas first was because Velikovsky never had.

    Right now from the delusional drivel on the net I can not figure out which records come from Ramses II and which from Menerptah. I read all of them decades ago, including the texts from Ugarit, ago while working on the “Minoans” and the “Sea Peoples”. I intended to get back to them, but a stroke intervened.

  • E.P. Grondine

    Hi Joachim, Carol –

    Both of you need to understand that the site reports are available at the Oriental Institute in Chicago.

    But I would not try Chicago traffic right now in anything less than a Turbo Diesel VW, about $29,000, plus gas and parking. And at that price, site visits would be more practical.

    So what you have as a base to work from is what I wrote for the Cambridge Conference many years ago, and Bruce Masse’s separate and independent work through those materials.

    As far as impacts and volcanism or earthquakes,
    my current view is to take them separately, except for very large impacts millions of years ago.

    Note carefully that volcanic dust loading does not exclude impact dust loading; and that earthquakes do not prevent impacts. Remember that real science takes skills, hard work, time, and money.

  • E.P. Grondine

    Joachim –

    Sorry for the multiple posts, but it just occurred to me that you also need to check with the geologists to see if those circular features you are looking at are not simply collapsed gas domes, rather than impact craters.

  • The inscriptions of Merenptah were found in the 19th century and caused a lot of excitement as they mention for the first time a people known as Israel. The palace temple of Medinet Habu was excavated between 1927 and 1936 by the Oriental Institute of Chicago (as you note). It had around 10,000 square metres of incriptions and reliefs some of which are clearly visible and others that are damaged. These inscriptions were translated by Breasted, Edgerton and Wilson, in 12 volumes. On top of this we have the Papyrus Harris, written by a son of RIII and clearly in honour of his life. There are inscriptions of Merenptah at the Karnak temple in which he says, Libya has become a desert, the Libyans came to Egypt to seek sustenance for their bodies …’. At Medinet Habu RIII is made to say, Libya became a desert, a terrible torch hurled flame from heaven to destroy their souls and lay waste their land .. their bones burn and roast within their bodies’ (Breasted). A text of Seti II (between Merenptah and RIII) reads, ‘Sekhmet was a circling star which spread out fire in flames, a fire flame in his storm (Breasted volume 3 p117, 1906)(circling should perhaps read rotating). An inscription from Ugarit (Ras Shamra in Phoenicia)(excavated by Claude Schaeffer and gave rise to his ideas on earthquakes)dated shortly from before its destruction, ‘the star Anat has fallen from heaven. He slew the people of Syria and confused the two twilights and the seats of the constellations’. Pritchard, Ancient and Near Eastern Texts might also be worth looking at. NK Sandars, The Sea Peoples, is a fairly important work on the period, and comprehensive. However, most scholarly work on the Sea Peoples has been concerned in identifying them and it is generally assumed, from the very first translation, that these people were responsible for all the site destructions. Schaeffer was the first archaeologist or historian to question the consensus (and others have since also noted they were mainly farmers with ox carts and their families that are depicted migrating south from the Hittite world). Sandars describes this situation quite well – but not being a catastrophist he makes up a revised invasion hypothesis, the sea peoples and unknown barbarians attacking the Hittites and driving them out of their lands. Breasted’s translation, widely quoted, is based on the supposition that RIII portrayed himself as the goddess Sekhmet (note also that Anat was a goddess) and when he says he burns up the enemy we are left wondering if this is hyperbole (the pharaoh being a representative of the god on earth) or is actually describing what that god did. One major part of the Breasted translation, especially when confronting the refugees arriving at the river mouths of the delta, is to say that, ‘the flame is prepared before them ..’ and that kind of line, implying that either he has prepared his army and navy in expectation of their arrival, or is he saying they are driven by the flame and before it. There are different translations and no doubt a new translation might be overdue. I don’t know but as Breasted and others would not have thought in terms of catastrophism or space rocks and then you have to wonder how those inscriptions might have been translated with that in mind. On top of that the Medinet Habu inscriptions are fragmentary and have big chunks missing from them. They were 3000 years old before western archaeologists had a chance of looking at them.
    Finally, let me say that I would be surprised that anything you read about the Merenpah and RIII inscriptions above, online, has anything to do with Velikovsky. It is true that SIS began as a society designed to test Velikovsky’s ideas, dreamed up by students at a London university. However, it has always embraced other catastrophist ideas, from Allen and Delair to Clube and Napier. The latter two have spoken at conferences and at speaker meetings and Victor Clube has written articles published in SIS journals. Other astronomers have also been speakers, such as Mark Bailey of Armagh Observatory, and the line-up at the 1997 conference (organised by Benny Peiser who was then on SIS council)(he left when he went to John Moores University in Liverpool but he is still in contact with some members). Han Kloosterman has also spoke at a meeting (and he was featured on Cosmic Tusk a year or so ago). He also had several of us out visiting quarries in UK looking for a lost Younger Dryas boundary black layer that he had been shown by a local geologist some years ago but it turned out it had been bulldozed away. David Rohl was a prominent member of SIS and went on to write several books and appear in several TV programmes on a revised chronology which cut Velikovsky’s revision in half. In fact, Velikovsky was himself miffed after our Glasgow conference in 1978 that rejected his Sea Peoples and RII revision (the two books that followed Ages in Chaos). Velikovsky actually ignored the catastrophic parallels in the texts of Merenptah and RIII because they did not fit into his scheme. I had a flick through them last night and they do not mention any of the texts above. Why is this? Simples. He placed dynasty 19 in the 7th and 6th century and RIII in the 4th century, identifying the Philistines with the Persians (which means he also ignored the fact we are dealing with refugees rather than an army of invasion). He was a man that spent hours pouring over obscure texts, or religious books such as the Avestas, or the Eddas, in order to extract the odd reference to catastrophism, but when it came to genuine historical texts (above) he wilfully let them be. So, no way my interpretation owes anything to Velikovsky, directly, not that I think it would matter much if it did as Velikovsky looked at numerous myths and texts from the ancient world and presented us all with a new perspective, a catastrophist one. He was also able to show that religion,and the idea of godhead, came from fear of catastrophism. When next you go to a christmas carol service think about the words of those hymns and things – all about propitiation and adulation etc. The gods were objects in the sky, and that is one way to look at the origin of religions. Of course, modern religion is all about what developed after those gods ceased to be visible objects in the sky, yet at different times fear of gods via millennarianism has spread like wildfire after a spate of meteor storms or the close passage of a comet with an enormous sky filling tail. In that respect Velikovsky was spot on. What you need to remember is that Velikovsky was looking for anything catastrophic from anywhere in order to prove something momentous occurred around 1500BC, and again in the 9th and 8th centuries BC. He interpreted everything in that context. Comets were dirty snowballs and harmless and this inspired him to think in terms of an errant Venus etc. Even C14 dating at that time was producing fairly low dates, subsequently rectified by calibration. Once published he was stuck with 1500BC, based on Biblical numbers (and other factors) but when the revised C14 dates came out he was stranded. Rather than adjust to the new evidence, nothing much happened where he wanted it but plenty was going on late 3rd millennium BC, he stubbornly stuck to his guns and insisted the chronology was all wrong and therefore the C14 methodology must be erroneous (and yet had relied on some of it previously)which was completely counter productive. Not just for him but for anyone taking up his ideas and trying to promote catastrophism. A large part of the mainstream criticism of Clube and Napier has revolved around the fact it is clearly based on the Velikovsky model to some degree, but instead of planets on random orbits they came up with a logical comet scenario. Whether it is true or not I have no idea but it seems worth pursuing in order to find out. Hence, Velikovsky has been a negative value for researchers interested in Tunguska and the idea space rocks can penetrate our atmosphere periodically, but the younger generation have no memory of him and they have a chance to look at in a clear minded fashion.

  • Hermann Burchard

    Carol,
    your last question is about Clube & Napier’s work being partially inspired by Velikovsky? On Victor Clube’s Wikipedia page is a reference to what seems to be his work linke him to the V-name:

    The dynamics of armageddon (1988). Speculations of Science and Technology 11 (4), 255-264; reprinted in Zysman, Milton and Clark Whelton (eds.) (1990). Catastrophism 2000: A Sourcebook for the Conference Reconsidering Velikovsky, Toronto, Canada, pp. 5–16.

    But being V-inspired doesn’t mean V-tainted. No scientist would take his Venusian excursions in earnest. Needless to say, Einstein was totally dismissive, although he seems to have had some polite conversations (recent email from Leroy E.).

    Both, Clube and Napier, are alive and may be willing to comment. Also Benny Peiser, Duncan Steel, Leroy Ellenberger may have first hand knowledge, and you might send them emails (I can forward your remarks if would like me to).

  • E.P. Grondine

    Hi CS –

    First off, thanks for your note, but I still would have to get to the Oriental Institute to work with those materials, and to take a look at the excavations from Libya and “Syria”.

    N.K. Sandars is Nancy K. Sandars. Her book on the Sea Peoples is very, very, very bad.

    Clube and Napier got nailed by the archaeological establishment because they used their own chronology, and their research aide for those materials really let them down there.

    Anybody working with impacts is still “perfumed” by the stench of Velikovksy’s work. I turn people who want to know about it over to Leroy Ellenberger, as I have absolutely no interest in dealing with his “work” even with a 20 foot pole.

    The habit of many people to elide data of impact events and ancient accounts of impact events still goes on. They play loose with archaeological and geological data as well.

  • Clube and Napier of course distanced themselves from Velikovsky and that is fairly obvious, they were professional astronomers and had to deal with colleagues and scientists in order to be taken seriously. You can bet your life they had read Velikovsky’s Worlds in Collision and seen the impossibility of it and later thought about in the context of real comets. I’ve no doubt Leroy will agree with me about why Velikovsky ignored texts that didn’t suit him and made a meal of other, more tenuous, texts. Leroy is also keen on the Clube and Napier hypothesis.

  • Really dumb question for the resident experts: Is there a location / web page that simply lists the suspected impact events since YD along with dates, suggested impact locations, and appropriate links for sources?

    Reading here the last few weeks, it occurs to me that it may be time to start constructing such a resource. I am a real newbie in this, but wouldn’t mind starting constructing such a thing if I could find a place to host it. Cheers –

  • E.P. Grondine

    Hi AG –

    You could start with the list here:

    http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/ccc/ce091702.html

    but it needs to be updated

  • Hi Ed,
    thank you for your reference tips. I went through them, the Bruce Masse
    paper on Earth, Air and Fire…included some great details. The major
    paper on the, as it is named in Wikipedia, the 4.2 kiloyear event is
    the 1998 study of Mrs. Courty, whose scrutinizing soil analysis provides
    more answers than she herself detected…
    What Mrs. Courty and Mr. Masse urgently need is a workable tool, a method
    how to detect and prove cosmic impacts. We can do it purely based on our
    cosmic climate change footprint analysis, see http://www.knowledgeminer.eu/eoo_paper.html. I will send you a free copy by Email: weltklima (at) Gmail.com

    Our new paper is called: “Asteroid impacts and the climate change footprint,
    as example: The 4.2 kiloyear event”

    I urgently need (cannot find anything) a soil description of this thick
    river flood soil layer, which ended Jemdet Nasr, and “radia carbon dated at 2900 BC”…..this is the layer, on which the Great Ziggurat at Ur is standing on.
    I doubt that this layer is a one-occation alluvial river flood layer, simply from the discrepancy of the date: flood of 2900 BC, but the Great Ziggurat was started
    in construction at 2100 BC….missing are 800 years in between, missing as well
    the 20 cm fine impact dust layer of Weiss and Courty at Tell Leilan, which
    should be observed in other places such as Nippur, Uruk, Lagash etc, since it
    was a large distance aeolian mud cloud followed immediately as a second phase with a hugh torrential mud flow immediately after deposition….(Courty)
    I would appreciate to take a look at a Mesapotamian soil layer analysis for the time 3000 BC to 2000 BC…. any reference?
    with many thanks and best regards yours JS.

  • E.P. Grondine

    Hi JS –

    My estimate is that the Ullikummi impact took place in the north, in the Hurrian area. See the text of the Stele of Naram Sin.

    As far as your requests go, if you have money, you may be able to hire a graduate student studying at Chicago to locate materials relating to your questions in the Oriental Institute collection, then scan them and e-mail the scans to you.

  • Hi Ed, thanks for your help. I found the ultimate geological impact
    evidence in a specialist paper of 2010. All resolved and
    unrefutable proof is now on hand. I will also get in touch with
    Dr. Masse at his lanl.gov. Our paper will be sensational.
    The stele text of Naram Sin would be good to add, if relevant…the
    text would be under Google address X? A tip? Thanks again and
    best regards, JSei