Exploring abrupt climate change induced by comets and asteroids during human history

SOS: Dutchmen Desperately Seeking Paleo-Plant Wiz

Tusk buddy and YDB team co-author, Johan “Han” Kloostermann, sent me a note sometime ago that I failed to post. Han is the resident expert on the “Usselo Horizon,” a Dutch analog to the Younger Dryas Black Mat and associated YDB layer found throughout North America.

I hope Han will elaborate further in the comments section, but it appears he simply needs an open-minded expert in the relevant fields of paleo-botany and palynology to take a look at some soil samples and report what they find. Perhaps there would be nothing of interest — or perhaps they would detect the burning breath of Hell.

Anyone with these skills — or who could identify someone who might help — is encouraged to contact me or Han directly. My email is at the bottom of the “About George” page.


In some ten exposures of the Usselo Horizon I have seen, two have a thin (a few cms thick) peat-coloured layer on top of the UH – or else it is part of that layer.

I have tried, by sending e-mails to people either side of the northern Atlantic, to find a palaeobotanist and a palynologist willing to have a look at the samples I took. No success.

To readers of the Cosmic Tusk it is not necessary to explain the possible importance: what has happened between the Alleroed and the Younger Dryas.

If you know somebody who is willing to have a look at my samples, please let me know.

~~Han Kloosterman


10 Responses

  1. May I suggest looking in S America?

    I would not suggest Mexico, after what the arkies did with the Valsequillo site. I think Mexico should be put on probation for the next 5 centuries for that one. (specifics on request…)

    I’ve heard that the S American people are not beholden to the same paradigms as their N American brethren. It might be a place to look.

  2. In N.America and in Poland (Romuald Schild) the Usselo/Clovis Layer was placed, stratigraphically, at the beginning of the Dryas III, but the Dutch palynologists placed it just somewhere during the Alleroed. With the thin peatlike layer on top of it, the bitter cold of the Dryas III cannot have started immediately after the deposition of the UL, there must have been a short period with a less icy climate.
    What happened? I wonder how the flora of that thin peat layer compares with that of the Alleroed type-locality in Denmark.

  3. Dear Han

    Do you think the Laacher See a super-volcano in Germany can be a complicating factor for the study of the YD? Its last explosion seems occurred at 12,900 years ago.


    It would be possible for a comet fragment starting a rash of these volcanic calderas?

    Hermann discusses an interesting hypothesis “…….more than one Eifel caldera may be from the YDB comet discovered by the Firestone group. This is the main point I wanted to make in my last Tusk comet, because every YDB paper that I have seen, if the Laacher See eruption is mentioned at all, the authors agonize about to dismiss it instead of embracing it as a case of IMPACT VOLCANISM, of which there can be little doubt that it is…..”

    best regards

  4. Hello Pierson, the Laacher See eruption was not the LAST but the ONLY one – do you know where they got their idea about
    The LS fallout has been traced N-S from southern Sweden to northern Italy, but not in the UK. The wind directions interfere, and these change with time and with altitude.
    Cf. the oval shape of the Thera fallout, from the island in the direction of Egypt.
    Much work has to be done, in field and lab, to find the relationship with the Usselo event. Obviously the dating, by Kaiser et al., of the LS explosion 600ys after the Usselo event is inspired by the interpretation of the Usselo Layer as a soil, which it is not. Better don’t trust at all the datings of uniformitarians. I have seen, near Hilversum, recent or subrecent roots of coniferes sniffing their way horizontally through the Usselo Layer, hunting for organic food which is absent in the sand layers below and above; and there is bioturbation, presumably from shortly after the deposition and covering of the UL to an unknown date, invalidating C-14 dates.

  5. Hello Pierson:
    thank you Pierson, for giving my Tusk comment a grade of “interesting hypothesis.” This matter deserves fresh scrutiny. In about 2002, Melosh and Ivanov published a paper entitled “Impacts do not initiate volcanic eruptions . .” You can find a PDF (undated) on Jay Melosh’s homepage.

    The paper in particular states LIPs like the Columbia River Basalt Plateau could not have been caused by impacts. By Jay’s enormous prestige, this ten year old paper has essentially halted any discussion. This is so despite ample evidence to the contrary in part provided by me elsewhere on the Tusk. He is considered “Mr. Impact” I was advised. I believe the reasons for his false conclusions are easy to discern. The work is based on a deficient model for chemical composition and physics of the mantle. In particular the role of volatiles is well-known from explosive volcanism, including so-called resurgent calderas. In this way successive eruptions renew available volatiles after a caldera is recapped by plate tectonics. The hotspot or low seismic velocity zone of several hundred km depths is refreshed for a new eruption to build up by release of volatiles. — But my geology expertise does not suffice for writing a good paper to refute Melosh-Ivanov.

  6. Hi Hermann

    ………All right. Neither do I!

    The Chicxulub crater with 180 km was produced by an asteroid of 12 km that was not capable of causing volcanism.


  7. You are correct, it caused plutonic eruptions, not volcanism. The experts are divided about the exact mechanism but agree plutons are made in the lower crust, near the Moho. In the Chicxulub case, it may have escaped notice by uniformitarians that plate tectonics has moved the crater far to the West (Yucatan). But the impact spot in the lower crust, the bottom of the initial impact cavity was far enough down, about 10 statute miles, to stay behind and send up plutons, lifting the crust above it, the Cretaceous sediments that pre-existed and the subsequent Tertiary sediments on top of the plutons as limestones, making a long chain of islands contiguous with the NE Yucatan, then Cuba about 700 miles long, etc the Greater Antilles, to the last tiny one Virgin Gorda, where there were no more limestones to push up, so the island is famous for its fantastic plutonic formations. — Always ask the experts.
    They will confirm that the Greater Antilles are formed of limestone above plutonic socles.

  8. Pierson, Herman,
    Two reasons why there is not much known about the correlations of impacts and volcanic eruptions are 1. the uncertainties of dating methods, and 2. the mentality of uniformitarians: they are not looking for such correlations, ergo not finding them.

    PS. I just found (on the Net) 2 more exposures of the Usselo Layer, 1 in Holland, 1 in Germany.

  9. Han –

    Happy New Year to you, sir…

    I am a little dense on how you fit the Usselo layer with the YDB, process-wise.

    Would you mind giving a summary of your thinking, an “Usselo Layer for Idiots”?

  10. Steve, I do NOT fit the Usselo Layer with the YDB, process-wise, because I don’t know the process(es) that were going on. The research is just beginning. That’s why I am looking for the cooperation of a palynologist.

    Near Laren there is a thin (a few cms) layer of peat on top of the Usselo Layer; near Enschede’ also, but there the UL has first undergone cryoturbation, and then was partly abraded before the peat layer was deposited. What was going on?

    I am criticising the European researchers for doing (next to) nothing.
    I am criticising the N.american researchers for being more lab reserchers than fieldworkers.

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